Hungarian

The TERMERD project: „Assessing forest naturalness in Hungary”

 

Participants

Members of the TERMERD team. The team is a mixture of forest engineers and biologists. The team was responsible for developing the methods of this study and for performing all data analyses, hence the team holds the copyright of all the results of this project.

Field surveyors. Forest engineers, biologists and university students. They contributed to the project by performing the field survey.

Technical staff. They contributed to the project by developing our database, by filling in and checking data.

 

Scientific background of the project.

Hungarian references

International references

 

Schedule of the project.

2002-2003. Formulating aims, selecting study sites, developing sampling protocol.

2003-2004. Performing field survey.

2004. Developing database structure filling in and checking data.

2004-. Data analyses.

 

Aims of the project {download pdf).

The aim of this project is to assess the naturalness status of Hungarian forests with a reliable estimate (1) that is based on a sample that is representative of all Hungarian forests; (2) that uses quantitative descriptors of several important components and processes (canopy, understorey, shrub and herb layers; tree regeneration; effects of games; site degradation); (3) that uses a continuous scale.

 

Methods.

 

Selection of study sites {download pdf}. Roughly 3000 forest subcompartments were selected from the National Forest Stand Data Base operated by the Hungarian State Forest Service, using stratified random sampling. The three strata - semi-natural, transitional, and plantations - were distinguished by tree species and site conditions.

 

Map showing the distribution of selected sites. (without plantations) {download pdf}.

 

Field form {download pdf}. Field workers filled in a form with 51 questions, and a supplementary list of plant species was also produced.

 

Guide for filling in the field form {download pdf}.

 

Data analyses {download pdf}. Based on the data filled in the field form, and the corresponding species list, we used 56 indicators of forest naturalness. In addition, we also used data from the forest management plan of the given site. Analyses can focus on a single indicator, a criterion (or criterion-group), or – based on all indicators – we can compose the naturalness value of the whole stand. Naturalness values are derived during a hierarchical process composed of three levels. At the first level, we evaluate the qualitative or quantitative indicators (observed in the field) by attaching a numerical value (on a ratio scale ranging from 0 to 100) based on how the status of the indicator in question corresponds to that of the hypothetical reference forest. The obtained value may depend on the potential natural forest community (PNFC) of the stand, and on the characteristics of the site and the tree stand. At the second level, the naturalness value of a criterion is derived as a weighed sum of the values of corresponding indicators. For each indicator, the applied weight is defined by estimating how important it is in determining the naturalness of the given criterion. To make naturalness values of different criteria comparable, for each criterion the obtained weighed sum is normalized by its possible theoretical maximum in the given PNFC. At the third level, the total naturalness value of the stand (a single number based on all assessed aspects) is calculated. It is derived as a weighed sum of the naturalness values of all the criteria used at the second level. Weight of a criterion may depend on PNFC.

 

Results of the project. Here we list unpublished reports and abstracts, lecture notes of presentations.

 

Naturalness of Hungarian forests” - a conference organised by the Forestry Committee of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, held on 07. 12. 2004, in Budapest. The results of the TERMERD project was first presented at this meeting by the members of the project team. Lecture notes of the 5 presentations can be downloaded below:

 

A series of lectures was held by the team at the Forestry Faculty, University of West Hungary in Sopron, on 06.05.2005 within the frame of “The week of forests” organised by the Kaán Károly Erdészeti és Természetvédelmi Egyesület

 

List of publications.

  1. Bartha, D., Bölöni, J., Ódor, P., Standovár, T., Szmorad, F. and Tímár, G. 2003. A magyarországi edők természetességének vizsgálata. Erdészeti Lapok. 138(3): 73-75.{download pdf}

  2.  Bölöni, J., Bartha, D., Standovár, T., Ódor, P., Kenderes, K., Aszalós, R., Bodonczi, L., Szmorad, F. and Tímár, G. 2005a. A magyarországi erdők természetességének vizsgálata I. Kutatási előzmények és mintavételezés. Erdészeti Lapok 140(5): 152-154. {download pdf}

  3. Bölöni, J., Bartha, D., Standovár, T., Ódor, P., Kenderes, K., Aszalós, R., Bodonczi, L., Szmorad, F. and Tímár, G. 2005b. A magyarországi erdők természetességének vizsgálata II. Az erdők természetességének elemzése tájak és erdőtársulások szerint. Erdészeti Lapok 140(6): 198-201. {download pdf}

  4. Ódor, P., Bölöni, J., Bartha, D., Kenderes, K., Szmorad, F., Tímár, G., Standovár, T., Aszalós, R. and Bodonczi, L. 2005. A magyarországi erdők természetességének vizsgálata III. A faállomány és a holtfa természetességének értékelése. Erdészeti Lapok 140(7-8): 226-229. {download pdf}

  5. Kenderes, K., Tímár, G., Aszalós, R., Bartha, D., Bodonczi, L., Bölöni, J., Ódor, P., Standovár, T. and Szmorad, F. 2005. A magyarországi erdők természetességének vizsgálata IV. Az erdőgazdálkodás hatása a természetességre. Erdészeti Lapok 140(9): 259-261. {download pdf}

  6. Standovár, T., Aszalós, R., Bartha, D., Bodonczi, L., Bölöni, J., Kenderes, K., Ódor, P., Szmorad, F. and Tímár, G. 2005. A magyarországi erdők természetességének vizsgálata IV. Miért kell, s hogyan érdemes az erdők természetességével foglalkozni. Erdészeti Lapok (in press). {download pdf}

 

The project was funded by: